Journal of Health Science Research <p>Journal of Health Science Research (JHSR) is an open access international journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles. The journal is a Bi-annual Publication. The Journal is Indexed in Index Copernicus, Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research, i-Scholar, J-Gate Plus, Google Scholar, Genamic Journal Seek, Journal TOC.</p> <div class="headline"> </div> Open Science Publishers LLP en-US Journal of Health Science Research 2456-2688 Retrospective Evaluation of Patients with Infantile Spasm Diagnosis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Infantile spasm (West Syndrome) (IS) is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy clinic specific to the first two years of life. Infantile spasm is the most known epileptic syndrome of infancy with typical seizures in the form of spasm, psychomotor retardation and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalography. Typical spasms are in the form of flexor/extensor contractions that last for about 2-5 seconds, which usually symmetrically involves all muscle groups in the body. </p> <p><strong>Material and Method: </strong>In this study, the data of patients, who were followed up with the diagnosis of "infantile spasm" in the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Mersin City Training and Research Hospital between 2020 and 2022, were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic characteristics, clinical, EEG and MRI findings of the patients were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Eighteen patients were included in the study. Ten (55.5%) of our patients were male and 8 (44.5%) were female. The mean age of patients was ……. years. 11 (61.1%) patients were in the symptomatic group, 5 (27.7%) patients were in the cryptogenic group, and 2 (11.1%) patients were in the idiopathic group. At the time of diagnosis, there was flexor spasm, extensor spasm, mixt spasm, tonic seizure, myoclonic seizure in 5 (27,7%), 4 (22,2%), 4 (22,2%), 3 (16,6%), and 2 (11,1%) patients, respectively. Hypsarrhythmia, suppression-burst pattern, focal epileptic abnormality and generalized epileptic abnormality was observed in 8 (44,4%), 4 (22,2%), 3 (16,6%), and 3 (16,6%) patients, respectively. Of the 14 patients who were first diagnosed, 8 (57.1%) were treated with ACTH, 4 (28.6%) with phenobarbital, 2 (14.3%) with vigabatrin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Infantile spasm is an important age-related encephalopathy with severe neurological sequelae, resistant seizures, and high morbidity and mortality all over the world and in our country. Spasms cause further damage to the central nervous system, which continues to develop. For this reason, a positive contribution can be made in terms of prognosis with early and appropriate treatment.</p> Mahmut Aslan Serdal Gungor Copyright (c) 2022 Mahmut Aslan, Serdal Gungor 2022-07-16 2022-07-16 7 11 10.7324/jhsr.2022.722 Evaluation of Clinical, EEG, and Lumbar Puncture Findings of Patients with Complicated Febrile Seizure <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Febrile seizure (convulsion) (FC) is a type of seizure which is accompanied by fever, without a history of neurological disease and central nervous system infection. It occurs in approximately 2–5% of children aged between 6 months and 5 years. Complex FC is a type of convulsion which is often accompanied by focal seizures, occurs again within 24 h, and/or lasts longer than 15 min. About 20–25% of patients experience complex FC.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Our study included 45 patients who applied to Ayd?n State Hospital Pediatric Neurology Clinic between July 2018 and July 2020 and Mersin City Training and Research Hospital between October 2020 and October 2021 with complex febrile seizures. Demographic and laboratory findings of the patients were evaluated retrospectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Two hundred and seven patients with FC applied to our clinic. Forty-five (21.7%) of these patients had complex FC. Forty-five patients, who were diagnosed with complex FC, were included in the study. The mean age was 16.6 months. LP was performed in 29 (64.4%) patients, EEG was performed in 40 (88.9%) patients. Pleocytosis was detected in three (6.7%) patients, Streptococcus pneumonia was detected in CSF culture in one patient. H1N1 encephalitis was also observed in one of our patients. EEG was taken in all patients within the first 7 days. EEG abnormalities were detected in 5 (11.1%) patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The presence of postictal neurologic findings was considered as the most important risk factor for CNS infections in our study. It was thought that the detection of epileptiform abnormality in the EEGs of the patients might be relat</p> Mahmut Aslan Serkan Kirik Copyright (c) 2022 Mahmut Aslan, Serkan Kirik 2022-07-16 2022-07-16 12 15 10.7324/jhsr.2022.723 Knowledge and Practice of Nurses towards Standard Precautions of Infection Control in Government Hospitals of Sana'a City, Yemen <p><strong>Background:</strong> Hospital-associated infections are those infections acquired during the patient's stay in a hospital or after the patient has been discharged from the hospital. Healthcare professionals, nurses in particular, are constantly expose to these infections while carrying out their nursing activities<strong>. </strong>This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge and practice of the standard precautions of infection control among nurses in the selected government hospitals in Sana'a, Yemen.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study conducted amongst nurses working in five government hospitals in Sana'a City, Yemen. A convenience sample consisting of 232 nurses who work in select hospitals used. The tool used was a self-administered questionnaire<strong>.</strong> Collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics used to analyze the study results. Chi-square test, T-test, and One-Way ANOVA test performed and a P-value ?0.05 considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study revealed that there was a significant statistical difference between nurses' knowledge and practice of standard precautions of infection control (p=0.037). The mean practices percent of nurses practicing safety precautions (53%) was significantly lower than the mean percentage of tested knowledge (81.4%). Less than half of the respondents 106 (45.7%) had a very good knowledge level (&gt;80%), however, only 48 (20.7%) practiced a good level of standard precautions of infection control. Significant statistical differences were found between knowledge and gender (P=0.028) as well as the practice towards work experience and hospital's name (P=0.047, 0.001 respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Nurses in the study had good knowledge but the poor practice of standard precautions of infection control. Most of the barriers to using standard precautions of infection control measures were the inadequate supplies of safety devices and the unavailability of infection control protocol in the hospitals.</p> Gawad M. A. Alwabr Khalid A. S. Al-Salehi Copyright (c) 2022 Gawad M. A. Alwabr, Khalid A. S. AlSalehi 2022-07-16 2022-07-16 16 23 10.7324/jhsr.2022.724 Serum liver enzyme alterations after laparoscopic cholecystectomy – a study. <p>&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adoption of laparoscopic approach for cholecystectomy on liver function tests. This was a retrospective analysis of the data of 242 patients who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Liver function tests were not ordered after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in routine surgical practice unless there was some specific reason in the postoperative period to initiate them. Only 14 patients had postoperative liver function tests and 2 had shown a transient rise in levels of enzymes. The rise in hepatic enzymes after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is transient and carries no clinical implications in patients with normal preoperative liver functions.</p> Sajad Ahmad Salati Copyright (c) 2022 Sajad Ahmad Salati 2022-07-16 2022-07-16 24 27 10.7324/jhsr.2022.725 Authorship in medical research: what should authors know? <p>There are many terms related to authorship. This confuses researchers, especially the most juniors. This narrative review summarizes the definition and criteria of authorship as well as types, number, order, and responsibilities of authors in the medical research. &nbsp;Authorship is classified into three major groups: appropriate, acceptable, and inappropriate. Remedies for authorship misconduct are mentioned.</p> Nesrine Saad Farrag Abdel-Hady El-Gilany Copyright (c) 2022 Nesrine Saad Farrag, Abdel-Hady El-Gilany 2022-07-16 2022-07-16 1 6 10.7324/jhsr.2022.721 Yellow Nail Syndrome and Associated Internal Disturbances <p>Nail changes detected during the general physical examination can contribute to establishing an initial diagnostic hypothesis and may enhance the awareness of some associated internal disorders. In approximately half of the cases, the changes are detected without being a present complaint. The main causes are dermatological diseases, infections, trauma, drug-related, and genetic entities. Yellow nail syndrome includes lung disorder, pleural effusion, and lymphedema of lower limbs; renal failure, hypothyroidism, malignant tumor, Saint’s triad, and pericarditis are related. The aim of the comments is to emphasize the role of nails evaluation to yield diagnostic clues.</p> Vitorino Modesto Santos Taciana Arruda Modesto Sugai Laura Campos Modesto Julia Campos Modesto Copyright (c) 2022 Vitorino Modesto Santos, Sugai TAM, Modesto LC, Modesto JC 2022-07-16 2022-07-16 28 30 10.7324/jhsr.2022.726